There are many well known musical compositions that employ themes having to do with mathematics.

Some time in the 1960s Tom Lehrer wrote and performed the song, New Math. In it, Lehrer vocally completes a multi-digit subtraction problem, first in base 10 and later in base 8. While the object is to provide a bit of entertaining humor it also seems certain that the song was to provide commentary on the ideas of the “new math” movement in vogue at that time.

Later, 1999, Jimmy Buffett wrote and performed a song titled, “Math Suks.” Also satirical and humorous, this work portrays a darker and frustrated attitude to toward mathematics.

Philip Glass has written an opera, Einstein at the Beach, which features both explicit and implicit uses of mathematics. In one part, a chorus provides repetitive counting chant. Throughout the work various timing and chord structures depend on mathematical sequences and symmetries.

The composer, John Cage, has produced many acclaimed and controversial works which involve mathematics in their structure. In particular, he wrote a series, Number Pieces, in which mathematical patterns entered into the timing indicated in his scores. In other works he has employed both geometrical and combinatorial patterns. One of his best-known (and controversial) works was Four Minutes and Thirty Three Seconds of Silence which consists of exactly what the title claims.

Which ones (if any) of the above examples describes a work of mathematical art?