The Golden Age of Microbiology

1857-1914

Beginning with Pasteur’s work, discoveries included the relationship between microbes and disease, immunity, and antimicrobial drugs

Louis Pasteur

 

Swan Neck Flask

Virchow 1858

Virchow’s theory of biogenesis was supported by Pasteur’s flask experiments.

Biogenesis is the theory that all cells arise from preexisting cells and is contrary to spontaneous generation.

 

Virchow 1858

Virchow’s theory of biogenesis was supported by Pasteur’s flask experiments.

Biogenesis is the theory that all cells arise from preexisting cells and is contrary to spontaneous generation.

 

Pasteurization

Heating liquids (wine and milk) prevented spoilage

Showed organisms can change organic materials

Lead to Germ Theory of disease

 

and even more importantly……

BEER!

Pasteur

Basi (1835)

Silkworm disease caused by a fungus

 

Irish Potato Famine

Ignaz Semmelweis

Joseph Lister

 

Antiseptic spray

Robert Koch

Anthrax is a disease of animals

Anthrax Drawings

Bacillus anthracis

Robert Koch

1876 – Bacillus anthracis

1882 – Mycobacterium tuberculosis

1883 – Vibrio cholera

 

Koch’s Postulates

1. associate

2. isolate

3. inoculate

4. re-isolate

Vaccines

Traditional and new approaches

Jump to Chapter 10!

III. How do we classify microbes?

III. How do we classify microbes?

Eukaryote classification

III. How do we classify microbes?

B. Microbial species

DNA-DNA hybridization

III. How do we classify microbes?

Recent developments in microbiology

Endosymbiosis

Eukaryotic cells evolved from 2 prokaryotes living together

Chloroplast from cyanobacteria

Mitochondrion

Ribosomal RNA is same from prokaryotes and organelles (70s), circular DNA, and reproduction by binary fission

5 Kingdoms

Carl Woese 1978

Today - 3 Domain system

Naming Organisms

Binomial Nomenclature

Genus = capitalized

Species = lower case

Underscore both (or italics)

Escherichia coli or Escherichia coli

E. coli is shortened form

Classification of Microorganisms

Only pages 276-284 in Chapter 10